K.K. Stepanov


The so-called "Birobidzhan project" of the Amur region settling became one of the most significant pre-war state programs for the colonization of the sparsely populated border territories of the Russian Far East. The massive influx of settlers demanded increased attention to new settlements planning at the Jewish Autonomous region (organized in 1934), and primarily to its capital Birobidzhan. Building of the town, aimed to be the centre of a new ethnically determined subject from scratch, dictated specific conditions in the cultural aspect, urban planning and architecture.

Thus, the present article makes an attempt to analyze the formation specifics of its planning structure. Having studied the first projects of the town's master plan and objects built in 1928–1942, the author defined directions of the local architecture development, its characteristics and features. The corpus of the 1930s archival materials allows us deepen our knowledge of the most significant processes in the regional design management and construction. The article also aims to reveal the reasons for the eventual failure of the initial architectural ideas. Along with this, the author provides the biographical data of key architects and engineers working in the field of design, construction and the town's urban economy decision-making. Clarifications have been made regarding the pre-war architectural heritage of Birobidzhan. 

Ключевые слова

Birobidzhan; Jewish Autonomous region; architecture of the first five-year plans; design organization; regional architecture


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