I.I. Vlasova, A.V. Kopanina, A.I. Talskikh, E.O. Vatserionova


The article describes problems in preparing the woody plants bark for maceration and the ways to solve them by modifying methodological approaches. During maceration of the bark and its constituent tissues of woody plants, certain difficulties arise, especially with phloem, since this tissue is less lignified and stable than xylem, which remains relatively unchanged in its structure during ontogenesis. This fact requires an individual approach not only to different types, but also to each specific case. We use separation, that is, the selection of necessary tissue sections and tissue types (soft and hard) at each stage of maceration: selection of definite fragments for analysis, varying the exposure time for a certain type, collection and tissue fragment site, centrifugation of both hard, soft and liquid fractions. We separate, if possible, the periderm and wood, macerating only the part necessary for microscopic analysis of the bark internal structure. They are conductive phloem to reveal the characteristics of conducting living elements, non-conductive phloem for the study of sclerified elements, and elements of the cortex for the study of parenchyma, primary mechanical elements, etc. The macerating liquid includes distilled water, concentrated acetic acid, and hydrogen peroxide. We place the prepared samples, tightly closed with a ground lid, in a thermostat with a temperature of 50 °C. The exposure time in the thermostat can vary from several hours to several days. Then we thoroughly wash the macerated matter with distilled water before the odor of acetic acid disappears, with the following centrifuging and preparing the slides for analysis.

Ключевые слова

maceration; microscopic analysis; internal structure of the cortex


Alekhin V.V. Metodika polevogo izucheniya rastitel’nosti i flory (Methods of field study of vegetation and flora). Moscow: Narkompros Publ., 1938. 208 p. (In Russ.).

Vatserionova E.O., Kopanina A.V. The Internal Structure of the Young Stems Spiraea Beauverdiana Formed Under Solfataric Fields Golovnin Volcano Caldera, Kunashir Island. Byulleten’ Botanicheskogo sada-instituta DVO RAN, 2016, no. 15, pp. 8–10. (In Russ.).

Vatserionova E.O.,Kopanina A.V.,Vlasova I.I. The Structure of the Bark of the Annual Stem of Spiraea Beauverdiana (Rosaceae) in the Conditions of the Solfatar Fields of the Golovnin Volcano’s Caldera (Kunashir, South Kuril Islands). Byulleten’ Botanicheskogo sada-instituta DVO RAN, 2021, no. 25, pp. 1–15. DOI: 10.17581/bbgi2501. (In Russ.).

Vlasova I.I., Kopanina A.V. Methodological features of the analysis of the bark of woody plants, in IX S”ezd obshchestva fiziologov rastenii Rossii «Fiziologiya rastenii – osnova sozdaniya rastenii budushchego»: tez. dokl. (IX Congress of the Society of Plant Physiologists of Russia «Plant Physiology – the basis for the creation of plants of the future»). Kazan: Izd-vo Kazanskogo un-ta Publ., 2019, pp.100. (In Russ.).

Vlasova I.I., Kopanina A.V. Methodological features of preparation of material for microscopy of woody plant tissues, in Geodinamicheskie processy i prirodnye katastrofy: tezisy dokladov III Vserossijskoj nauchnoj konferencii s mezhdunarodnym uchastiem. otv. red. L.M. Bogomolov (Geodynamic processes and natural disasters: tez. dokl. III All-Russian Scientific Conference with international participation), Bogomolov L.M., Ed. Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, 2019, pp. 157. (In Russ.).

Vlasova I.I., Kopanina A.V. The peculiarity of sample preparation of shrubs and shrubs for structural analysis, in Botanicheskie chteniya: sb. materialov nauch. konf. (Botanical readings: collection of materials of scientific conf.). Brest: BrSU, 2021. pp. 31–35. (In Russ.).

Gamalei Yu.V. Jendoplazmaticheskaya set’ rastenii. Proishozhdenie, struktura i funkcii (Endoplasmic network of plants. Origin, structure and functions). Saint Petersburg: BIN RAS, 1994. 79 p. (In Russ.).

Gamalei Yu.V. Transportnaya sistema sosudistyh rastenii (Transport system of vascular plants).Saint Petersburg: Iz-vo Sankt-Peterburgskogo un-ta Publ., 2004. 424 p. (In Russ.).

Eremin V.M., Kopanina A.V. Atlas anatomii kory derev’ev, kustarnikov i lian Sakhalina i Kuril’skikh ostrovov, otv. red. E S.Chavchavadze (Atlas of the anatomy of the bark of trees, shrubs and lianas of Sakhalin and the Kuril Islands). Brest: Poligrafika Publ., 2012. 896 p. (In Russ.).

Kashina E.N. Sposob maceracii rastitel’nyh tkanei: Avt svid. № 325938 SSSR. (Method of maceration of plant tissues). 06.07.1970. (In Russ.).

Kashina E.N. Maceration of the tissues of leaves, roots and seed germs of Helianthus annuus L. Botanicheskii zhurnal, 1971, vol. 565, no. 10, pp.1477. (In Russ.).

Kopanina A.V. Structural Adaptations of Spiraea Beauverdiana (Rosaceae Juss.) in Extreme Conditions, in Stroenie, svoistva i kachestvo drevesiny – 2018: materialy VI Mezhdunar. simp. im. B.N. Ugoleva, posvyashchennogo 50-letiyu regional’nogo koordinatsionnogo soveta po sovremennym problemam drevesinovedeniya (Wood structure, properties and quality – 2018: materials of the VI International. simp. named after B.N. Ugolev, dedicated to the 50th anniversary of the Regional coordinating council on modern problems of wood science). Novosibirsk: SB RAS, 2018, pp. 108–111. (In Russ.).

Kopanina A.V. Structural Features of Bark and Wood of Spiraea Beauverdiana (Rosaceae) in the Extreme Conditions of Arctic and Volcanic Activity on the Kuril Islands. Sibirskii lesnoi zhurnal, 2019, no. 3, pp. 52–63. (In Russ.).

Lavrenko E.M. Metodika geobotanicheskih issledovanii stepei, in Metodika polevyh geobotanicheskih issledovanii (Methods of field geobotanical research). Moscow; Leningrad, 1938, pp. 43–55. (In Russ.).

Mazurenko M.T., Khokhryakov A.P. Struktura i morfogenez kustarnikov (Structure and morphogenesis of shrubs). Moscow: Nauka Publ., – 1977. 160 p. (In Russ.).

Prozina M.N. Botanicheskaya mikrotekhnika (Botanical microtechnics). Moscow: Vysshaya shkola Publ., 1960. 206 p. (In Russ.).

Ramenskiy L.G. Uchet i opisanie rastitel’nosti (na osnove proektivnogo metoda) (Accounting and description of vegetation (based on the projective method)). Moscow: Iz-vo Vsesojuznoi akademii sel’skohozjajstvennyh nauk Publ., 1937. 100 p. (In Russ.).

Serebryakov I.G. Structure and rhythm in the life of flowering plants. Byulleten’ MOIP, otd. biol., 1949, vol. 54, no. 1, pp. 47–61. (In Russ.).

Spravochnik po botanicheskoj mikrotekhnike. Osnovy i metody, R.P. Barykina, T.D. Veselova, A.G. Devyatov, et al. (Handbook of botanical microtechnics. Basics and methods). Moscow: MSU, 2004. 312 p. (In Russ.).

Tal’skih A.I., Kopanina A.V., Vlasova I.I. Structural features of the crust of Betula ermanii (Betulaceae) in the landscapes of sea coasts and active volcanoes of the Russian Far East. Rastitel’nye resursy, 2021, vol. 57, no. 2, pp. 124–144. (In Russ.).

Evert R.F. Anatomiya rastenii Ezau. Meristemy, kletki i tkani rastenii: stroenie, funktsii i razvitie: per. s angl. (Anatomy of Ezau plants. Meristems, cells and tissues of plants: structure, functions and development: trans. from English), Stepanova A.V., Ed. Moscow: BINOM. Laboratoriya znanii Publ., 2015. 600 p. (In Russ.).

Angyalossy V., Pace M.R., Evert R.F., Marcati C.R., Oskolski A.A., Terrazas T., Kotina E., Lens F., Mazzoni-Viveiros S.C., Angeles G., Machado S.R., Crivellaro A., Rao K.S., Junikka L., Nikolaeva N., Baas P. IAWA List of Microscopic Bark Features. IAWA Journal, 2016, vol. 37, no. 4, pp. 517– 615. DOI: 10.1163/22941932-20160151.

Barbosa A.C.F., Pace M.R., Witovisk L., Angyalossy V. A new method to obtain good slides of heterogeneous plant parts. IAWA Journal, 2010, vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 373–383. DOI: 10.1163/22941932-90000030.

Blagitz M., Nogueira A., Marcati C.R. Differences of the stem vascular system across populations of two tropical species under contrasting water conditions. IAWA Journal, 2021, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 1–18. DOI: 10.1163/22941932-bja10077.

Chamberlain C.J. Methods in plant anatomy. 4th ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1935. 334 p.

Franklin G.L. Preparation of sections of synthetic resins and wood-resin composites, and a new macerating method for wood. Nature, 1945, 155, P. 51.

Dickson A. Mosaic, block-face microscopy for measuring cell dimensions, cell collapse, and spatial relationships in wood. IAWA Journal, 2021, vol. 32, no. 14, pp. 1–13. DOI: 10.1163/22941932-bja10072.

Frankiewicz K.E., Oskolski A.A., Reduron J.-P., Banasiak Ł., Reyes-Betancort J.-A., Trzeciak P., Spalik K. Stem anatomy of Apioideae (Apiaceae): effects of habit and reproductive strategy. IAWA Journal, 2021, vol. 277, no. 1693, pp. 1–20. DOI: 10.1163/22941932-bja10078.

Gärtner H., Schweingruber F.H. Microscopic preparation techniques for plant stem analysis. Birmensdorf: Verlag Dr. Kessel, 2013. 78 p.

Ge Wang, Sheldon Q. Shi, Jinwu Wang, Yan Yu, Shuangping Cao, Haitao Cheng.. Tensile properties of four types of individual cellulosic fibers. Wood and Fiber Science, 2011, Vol. 43 (4), pp. 353–364.

Hamann T., Smets E., Lens F. A comparison of paraffin and resin-based techniques used in bark anatomy. Taxon, 2011, vol. 60, no. 3, pp. 841–851. DOI: 10.1002/tax.603016.

Johansen D.A. Plant microtechnique. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1940. 523 p.

Keating R.C. Preparing plant tissues for light microscopy study: a compendium of simple techniques. St. Louis: Missouri Botanical Garden Press, 2014. 154 p.

Kopanina A.V., Talskikh A.I., Vlasova I.I., Kotina E.L. Age-related pattern in bark formation of Betula ermanii growing in volcanic environments from southern Sakhalin and Kuril Islands (Northeast Asia). Trees, 2022, pp. 1–25. DOI: 10.1007/s00468-021-02257-x.

Sibinelli V., Ceccantini G. Axial and radial wood maturation in three mistletoe ‘giants’ (Loranthaceae). IAWA Journal, 2022, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 1–16. DOI: 10.1163/22941932-bja10081.

Tomlinson P.B., Horn J.W., Fisher J.B. The anatomy of palms: Arecaceae–Palmae. Oxford University Press, 2011. 276 p. DOI: 10.1093/acprof:osobl/9780199558926.001.0001.

Vlasova I.I., Kopanina A.V. Specific microtechniques for bark tissues of woody plants, in Plant anatomy: traditions and perspectives. Materials of the International Symposium dedicated to the 90th anniversary of Prof. Ludmila Ivanovna Lotova. Moscow: MAKS Press, 2019, part 1, pp. 274–278.

Vlasova I.I., Kopanina A.V. Peculiarities of selecting woody plants for anatomy analysis in various environments. IOP Conference Series Earth Environmental Science, 2021, vol. 946 (1). 012048.


  • Ссылки не определены.